Published: 6 February 2021
Author(s): Alberto Papi, Leonardo M Fabbri, Huib A.M. Kerstjens, Paola Rogliani, Henrik Watz, Dave Singh
Issue: April 2021

The efficacy of muscarinic antagonists in asthma has been known since the early 1800s when inhalation of smoke from burning Datura stramonium leaves and roots became widespread in Britain as a treatment for obstructive airway disease (reviewed by Mansfield and Bernstein [1]). Once identified as the active agent, subsequent clinical studies were conducted with atropine [2], in turn replaced by the short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA) ipratropium bromide due to better efficacy and lower systemic effects [3].


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