Published: 7 November 2020
Author(s): Maria Betânia Ferreira, Tomás Fonseca, Rita Costa, António Marinhoc, Henrique Cyrne Carvalho, José Carlos Oliveira, Faiez Zannad, Patrick Rossignol, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Francisca A. Saraiva, Patrícia Rodrigues, António S. Barros, João Pedro Ferreira
Issue: April 2021
Section: Original article

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic and progressive inflammatory disease, characterized by persistent synovitis and joint erosion [1]. It affects around 1% of the general population and mostly young people [2,3]. Management of patients with RA has improved over the last 30 years with the development of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) [4,5]. Notwithstanding, many patients with RA remain undertreated and present a high cardiovascular risk [6,7]. The risk of developing heart failure (HF), in particular, up to 2-fold higher in RA (compared to the general population) and HF is a major determinant of the poor cardiovascular outcomes in this population [8–12].


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