Published: 12 January 2022
Author(s): Alberto Maria Marra, Leonardo Bencivenga, Roberta D'Assante, Giuseppe Rengo, Antonio Cittadini
Issue: May 2022
Section: Review Article

The original descriptions of Heart Failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) dates back to the mid-1980s, and, for approximatively a decade, studies on this HF subtype consisted of comparative reports or case series with great heterogeneity in terms of prevalence and clinical implications [1]. Accordingly, the most recent guidelines provided by European Society of Cardiology for the management of acute and chronic HF indicate that 50% of patients have Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) and the other half suffers from HFpEF/HFwith mildy reduced Ejection Fraction  [2].


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