Published: 30 June 2020
Author(s): Etienne Macedo, Azra Bihorac, Edward D. Siew, Paul M. Palevsky, John A. Kellum, Claudio Ronco, Ravindra L. Mehta, Mitchell H. Rosner, Michael Haase, Kianoush B. Kashani, Erin F. Barreto
Section: Original article

The short- and long-term consequences of acute kidney injury (AKI) are well-recognized [1–3]. The number of AKI episodes, their severity, and duration are critical determinants of adverse outcomes, including de novo or progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), cardiovascular disease, readmissions, increased cost of care, and mortality. In 2009, an audit of the quality of care in the United Kingdom provided to hospitalized patients who died with AKI indicated that improving management and care quality warranted urgent attention [4].


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