Published: 16 August 2022
Author(s): Gianfranco Sinagra, Enrico Fabris
Issue: October 2022
Section: Commentary

Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition resulting in more than 1 million hospitalizations annually in both the United States and Europe [1]. Because the natural history of HF is characterised by disease progression and episodes of acute decompensation most of HF patients are admitted for decompensated chronic HF [1]. The vast majority of signs and symptoms of patients presenting with decompensated HF are caused by pulmonary and systemic congestion [1], the wet haemodynamic profile which reflects increased cardiac filling.


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