Published: 7 January 2015
Author(s): Hao Wang, Zenglin Liao, Chun Wan, Fuqiang Wen, Lei Chen
Section: Letter to the Editor

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a worldwide disease, featured by not fully reversible and progressive airflow limitation, leading to the concurrence of persistent chronic airway inflammation (chronic bronchitis) and permanent parenchyma destruction (emphysema). Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), a restrictive pulmonary disorder, is reported to exist in COPD patients, part of which is defined as a new subtype of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), although the fibrotic regions, severity and even prognosis are varied in different individuals [1].


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