Published: 20 February 2015
Author(s): Joana Caetano, José Delgado Alves
Section: Review Article

Recent large epidemiological studies have confirmed that an elevated resting heart rate is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and overall mortality in the general population as well as in patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Pathophysiological studies indicate that a higher heart rate has detrimental effects that favor myocardial ischemia, ventricular arrhythmias, as well as an increase in vascular oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis progression.


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