Published: 5 January 2020
Author(s): Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno, Francesco Forte, Antonella Tufano, Agostino Buonauro, Francesca Wanda Rossi, Amato De Paulis, Maurizio Galderisi
Issue: January 2020
Section: Review Article

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease with unknown pathophysiological mechanisms, is characterized by systemic involvement. In particular, patients with SLE show an accelerated atherosclerosis, resulting in an up to10-fold increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [1]. In addition, pleuro-pulmonary diseases, pneumonia and pulmonary arterial hypertension are common in SLE patients [1,2]


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