Published: 14 April 2023
Author(s): Celestino Sardu, Gianluca Gatta, Gorizio Pieretti, Nunzia D’ Onofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri, Lucia Scisciola, Salvatore Cappabianca, Giuseppe Ferraro, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti, Giuseppe Signoriello, Liberata Sportiello, Gianluigi Savarese, Mario Melchionna, Feliciano Ciccarelli, Daniele La Forgia, Giuseppe Paolisso, Raffaele Marfella
Issue: July 2023
Section: Original article

The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in women could be caused by the expression of traditional cardiovascular risk factors [1–3], and specific female-dependent risk factors as menopause [4]. Hence, hypertension, obesity, and smoking are the strongest CVDs risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in younger women without a menopausal status (1–4). In this context, recently authors -showed that higher fat accumulation into the mammary gland (lowest breast density) could increase the risk of Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACEs), independently of body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio circumference (WHR) in pre-menopausal women [4].


Stay informed on our latest news!


This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.