Published: 6 March 2016
Author(s): Antonio Granata, Anna Clementi, Grazia Maria Virzì, Alessandra Brocca, Massimo de Cal, Viviana Rosalia Scarfia, Luca Zanoli, Claudio Ronco, Salvatore Corrao, Lorenzo Malatino
Issue: March 2016
Section: Review Article

Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS type 4), or chronic renocardiac syndrome, has been defined as “chronic abnormalities in renal function leading to cardiac disease” and recognizes the extreme burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is common and increasingly recognized as a risk factor for CVD. Even though the treatment for CVD has dramatically improved over the past decades, it still takes responsibility for up to 50% of deaths in CKD patients.


Stay informed on our latest news!


This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.