October 2023

33 Articles

A year later

Immune regulators for the treatment of COVID-19: A critical appraisal after two years

2 August 2023
Author(s): Nicola Farina, Lorenzo Dagna

More than three years have elapsed since the onset of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Following the identification of this novel and intricate disease, clinicians and scientists... more

Beyond the Guidelines

2023 ESH Guidelines. What are the main recommendations?

1 August 2023
Author(s): Paolo Verdecchia, Ehud Grossmann, Paul Whelton

Generally, Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) are evidence-based recommendations, presented as summaries of the best available literature, which are aimed to assist doctors and other health care... more


AMA-positivity in AIH-patients with bile duct lesions running in between. Novel findings and perspectives

7 August 2023
Author(s): Piero Portincasa, Leonilde Bonfrate, Agostino Di Ciaula

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive inflammatory liver disease characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum globulin levels. If left untreated, AIH may progress to... more

Gastrointestinal bleeding, a preventable cause of hospital admission: Time for specific studies in patients on antithrombotic therapy

28 July 2023
Author(s): Stefano Savonitto, Claudio Montalto, Stefano De Servi

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major cause of hospital admission, and in most cases has a iathrogenic cause. Administrative data from the United States report more than 400,000 hospital... more

Inflammatory puzzle: Unveiling the role of D-Dimer in acute pericarditis and thromboinflammation

27 July 2023
Author(s): Maddalena Alessandra Wu, Emanuele Bizzi, Antonio Brucato

In this issue of the European Journal of Internal Medicine, Lazaros et al. present the results of a prospective clinical study conducted in a tertiary referral center to investigate the potential... more


Corrigendum to ‘Clinical outcomes associated with the emergency treatment of hyperkalaemia with intravenous insulin-dextrose’ [European Journal of Internal Medicine 95C (2021) 87-92]

26 August 2023
Author(s): Toby J.L. Humphrey, Glen James, Ian B Wilkinson, Thomas F. Hiemstra

The authors regret that the supplementary material was not published with their above article.

Corrigendum to ‘Creatinine: From physiology to clinical application’[European Journal of Internal Medicine 72C (2020) 9-14]

27 July 2023
Author(s): Kianoush Kashani, Mitchell H. Rosner, Marlies Ostermann

The authors regret that there was an error in Figure 1 of the above published article. In this figure, the second yellow box from the top reads "Creatinine Phosphate," while it should read "Creatine... more

Internal Medicine Flashcard

Ring-like late gadolinium enhancement

12 August 2023
Author(s): Yuan Yao, Ting Liu, Qing Zhang

Dear Editor,

Unusual cause of chronic cough and bloody phlegm with Atypical pulmonary CT findings

11 August 2023
Author(s): Hiroki Matsuura, Shouta Yuzurio, Shinichi Mukai

A 42-year-old man with 3-month history of chronic dry cough and bloody phlegm was presented to our respiratory outpatient department. He had no previous significant medical history. He also denied... more

Continuous annular calcification of intestinal wall

3 August 2023
Author(s): Jingyi Chen, Hongli Lin, Longkai Li

A 49-year-old female patient received peritoneal dialysis (PD) for six years but has switched to hemodialysis for two years due to poor peritoneal ultrafiltration. She was admitted because of nausea... more

Letter to the Editor

The higher the serum albumin, the better? Findings from the PRACTICE study

31 July 2023
Author(s): Ying-Ying Zheng, Ting-Ting Wu, Xian-Geng Hou, Yi Yang, Hai-Tao Yang, Ying Pan, Wen-Juan Xiu, Xiang Ma, Yi-Tong Ma, Xiang Xie

The relation between hypoalbuminemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) has been established. However, the association of increased albumin level and outcomes of CAD has not been investigated.

Autoantibodies against an immunodominant epitope from apolipoprotein B and risk of cardiovascular events in subjects with type 2 diabetes

26 July 2023
Author(s): Viviane Aparecida R. Sant'Anna, Maria Cristina O. Izar, Magnus Gidlund, Henrique Andrade R. Fonseca, Vaccine Heart Group

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have accelerated atherosclerosis progression and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) are increasing in the... more

Risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection and clearance in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

23 July 2023
Author(s): Tiphaine Goulenok, Valentine Marie Ferré, Arthur Mageau, Thomas Papo, Karim Sacré

Women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at higher risk of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions [1]. Inadequate immune response may impair the clearance of cervical human... more

Ethics of death pronouncement

21 July 2023
Author(s): Zubia Afzal, Abdul Rehman Gull

Death is the only certainty we have in life. While everyone knows that human life is supposed to end but no one is fully prepared to embrace it, neither his own nor his loved ones. The death of a... more

Causal diagrams to compare randomized trials: The case of Early Goal-Directed Therapy for sepsis

21 July 2023
Author(s): Isaac Núñez, Adrian Soto-Mota

Performing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the best way to answer a causal question in clinical research [1]. While RCTs are frequently designed in close collaboration by physicians... more

B-cell depletion with obinutuzumab for the treatment of IgG4-related disease

21 July 2023
Author(s): Marco Lanzillotta, Paola Mapelli, Lorenzo Dagna, Emanuel Della-Torre

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized fibro-inflammatory disorder that can lead to end-stage organ damage if left untreated [1]. Glucocorticoids have been historically... more

Inotropes administration in patients with acute infective endocarditis and indication for urgent cardiac surgery

18 July 2023
Author(s): Lorenzo Bertolino, Tommaso Marrazzo, Filomena Boccia, Rosa Zampino, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni

Heart failure (HF) is the most common complication of acute infective endocarditis (IE), occurring in 42–60% of patients [1–2]. HF is mainly related to aortic or mitral regurgitation, but associated... more

Persistently raised blood pressure following coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines: Implication for future systematic research and monitoring

14 July 2023
Author(s): Samadhi Patamatamkul, Maythinee Potongcamphan

During the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an extensive immunisation programme was initiated worldwide. Subsequent to a comprehensive vaccination campaign, emerging evidence... more

Acute venous thromboembolism in the emergency department: Inpatient versus outpatient management trends from 2016 to 2019

13 July 2023
Author(s): Maria F Grande Ratti, María A Duhart, Ignacio M Bluro, Federico Sberna, Fernando J Vazquez

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), poses a significant public health concern [1]. It stands as the primary cause of morbidity and... more

Prevalence and characteristics of post COVID-19 condition five months after SARS-COV-2 infection in inpatients and outpatients.

8 July 2023
Author(s): Ivonne Chong, Jan A. Roth, Balthasar L Hug

We are well aware of the worldwide problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and thanks to health measures such as vaccination this situation has been positively controlled.

Original Article

Six-month cardiovascular prognostic impact of type 1 And type 2 myocardial infarction in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding

25 July 2023
Author(s): Gayatri Pemmasani, Ashwini Ashwath, Wilbert S. Aronow, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Jonathan Leighton, Savio John

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major healthcare concern that poses significant clinical and economic burden. It is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. In the... more

Intravenous continuous home inotropic therapy in advanced heart failure: Insights from an observational retrospective study

29 June 2023
Author(s): Piero Gentile, Gabriella Masciocco, Matteo Palazzini, Andrea Tedeschi, Giacomo Ruzzenenti, Nicolina Conti, Luciana D'Angelo, Grazia Foti, Enrico Perna, Alessandro Verde, Enrico Ammirati, Gianfranco Sinagra, Fabrizio Oliva, Andrea Garascia

Advanced heart failure (AHF) represents 1 to 10% of the overall heart failure (HF) spectrum, with prevalence increasing due to the improvement of survival provided by guideline directed medical... more

Multiple autoimmune syndrome: Clinical, immunological and genotypic characterization

27 June 2023
Author(s): Mariana Fidalgo, Raquel Faria, Cláudia Carvalho, Graziela Carvalheiras, Denisa Mendonça, Fátima Farinha, Berta Martins da Silva, Carlos Vasconcelos

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are a heterogeneous group [1–13] with different phenotypes (organ-specific vs. systemic or non-organ specific) [14] and an estimated world prevalence of 3–9.4% [14–17].... more

D-dimer as a diagnostic and prognostic plasma biomarker in patients with a first episode of acute pericarditis

23 June 2023
Author(s): George Lazaros, Panagiotis K. Vlachakis, Panagiotis Theofilis, Foteini E. Dasoula, Massimo Imazio, Emilia Lazarou, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Costas Tsioufis

Acute pericarditis (AP) is the most common inflammatory heart disorder [1]. AP has recently attracted increasing attention from the medical community and social media during the COVID-19 pandemic... more

Safety and efficacy of non-insulin therapy in non-critically ill hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

22 June 2023
Author(s): Irit Ayalon-Dangur, Tanya Babich, Maayan Huberman Samuel, Leonard Leibovici, Alon Grossman

Clinical guidelines recommend insulin as the mainstay of therapy for hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the current study is to evaluate safety and efficacy of non-insulin anti-... more

Pulmonary rehabilitation and endothelial function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A prospective cohort study

20 June 2023
Author(s): Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno, Silvestro Ennio D'Anna, Roberto Formisano, Nicola Pappone, Costantino Mancusi, Antonio Molino, Andrea Motta, Mauro Maniscalco

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an increasing cause of global morbidity and mortality [1], and cardiovascular (CV) disease accounts for approximately 30% of excess mortality in this... more

Histamine elevation in familial Mediterranean fever: A study from the Juvenile Inflammatory Rheumatism cohort

20 June 2023
Author(s): Nabiha Sbeih, Rim Bourguiba, Nadia Hoyeau-Idrissi, Jean-Marie Launay, Jacques Callebert, Danielle Canioni, Harry Sokol, Véronique Hentgen, Gilles Grateau, Olivier Hermine, Sophie Georgin-Lavialle

Autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are defined according to the International Society of Auto-Inflammatory Diseases as abnormal activation of the innate immunity in the absence of infection or... more

Recurrence rates and risk factors for recurrence after first episode of acute pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

15 June 2023
Author(s): Shuai Li, Lin Gao, Haowen Gong, Longxiang Cao, Jing Zhou, Lu Ke, Yuxiu Liu, Zhihui Tong, Weiqin Li

Acute pancreatitis (AP) has become a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder over the past few decades, with a growing impact on healthcare [1,2]. While most patients with AP experience mild symptoms and... more

Impact of thoracoabdominal imaging on diagnosis and management in patients with suspected infective endocarditis

15 June 2023
Author(s): Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Pierre Monney, David C. Rotzinger, Christel H. Kamani, Guillaume Fahrni, John O. Prior, Nicoleta Ianculescu, Yosra Messaoudi, Piergiorgio Tozzi, Matthias Kirsch, Benoit Guery

A common feature of infective endocarditis (IE) is the risk of organ embolization with approximately 30% of IE patients presenting at least one embolic event (EE), with the most common site of... more

Prevalence and significance of antimitochondrial antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH): Results from a large multicentre study of the International AIH Group

10 June 2023
Author(s): Nikolaos K. Gatselis, Kalliopi Zachou, Aldo J. Montano Loza, Eduardo Luiz Rachid Cançado, Teruko Arinaga-Hino, Paolo Muratori, Cumali Efe, Annarosa Floreani, Pietro Invernizzi, Athushi Takahashi, Akinobu Takaki, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Bart van Hoek, Ellina Lytvyak, Laura Vilar Guedes, Tugrul Purnak, Nora Cazzagon, Vasiliki Lygoura, Pinelopi Arvaniti, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Luigi Muratori, George N. Dalekos, International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive liver disease leading to end-stage liver disease and/or death, if left untreated [1–3]. Within the spectrum of AIH, some patients exhibiting... more

Review Article

A new strategy for anticoagulation: The factor XI inhibitors

4 August 2023
Author(s): Maria Cristina Vedovati, Cecilia Becattini, Giancarlo Agnelli

In the last decade, new oral anticoagulant agents with a direct inhibition of specific clotting factors (DOACs) have been claimed as first-choice therapy for the prevention of cardioembolic events in... more

Management of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid nodules in the ageing patient

30 June 2023
Author(s): José Ignacio Martínez-Montoro, Viyey Kishore Doulatram-Gamgaram, Gabriel Olveira, Sergio Valdés, José Carlos Fernández-García

Nowadays, people worldwide are living longer, and every country in the world is experiencing growth in both the size and the proportion of older persons in the population. In line with this, by 2030... more

Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool for sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis: Examining the pros and cons

27 June 2023
Author(s): Chiara Becchetti, Annalisa Berzigotti

Skeletal muscle abnormalities, including sarcopenia (pathological muscle mass depletion) and myosteatosis (abnormal fat accumulation in the muscles) are common features in patients with cirrhosis.... more


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