Published: 5 April 2022
Author(s): Tilman Sauerbruch
Issue: June 2022
Section: Ideas and Opinions

Empirical medicine – over centuries - has been based on close observation of the patient`s history and the sick body. Thus, the ancient Greeks had already concepts of human anatomy, organ functions and their disorders - some of them still valid. Many of these ideas – partly preserved in the Oriental and Arabic culture - were introduced to the first medieval universities in Italy and Spain, where they became interwoven with Christian thinking [1]. Medicine was connected to spirituality, in an attempt of human beings to cope with illness, plagues and premature death.


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