Published: 18 October 2019
Author(s): Lorena van den Bogaart, Alice Ranzani, Letizia Oreni, Andrea Giacomelli, Mario Corbellino, Stefano Rusconi, Massimo Galli, Spinello Antinori, Anna Lisa Ridolfo
Issue: October 2019

Major advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the last 20 years have dramatically changed the natural history of HIV infection, leading to the durable suppression of viral replication and consequent immunological recovery, and reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS-related illness and death [1,2]. Furthermore, the subjects who achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load cannot sexually transmit the virus to others, which has a substantial impact on the prevention of new infections [3]. All of the guidelines currently recommend starting ART early in the course of HIV infection in order to maximise its clinical and preventive benefits [4], but many people worldwide are still diagnosed years after becoming infected and reaching an advanced stage of disease [5,6].


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